The moon is the closest celestial body to the Earth. After the Sun, the moon is believed to have the utmost impact-contact on the Earth and its inhabitants. The greatest good or bad impact on the Earth in the present day maybe the Earth occupants themselves. Humans cause pollution, are responsible for ozone depletion, Earth excavation, resources wastage, air-water-soil pollution, deforestation, plastic bags, wars, flora—fauna imbalance, swelling of population etc. Even in Astrology, the moon is at number 2 after the Sun in importance and significance.
From the ancient times, thousands of years ago, lunar calendars, Astrology, Astronomy, auspicious-inauspicious days-times, months-years, religions, superstitions, belief systems etc regarded the moon as one of the main sources, and perhaps there was a lot of dependency on it for various other aspects. Even without perhaps any technological know-how at that time, no telescopes, tools, computers etc, the ancestors studied the moon patterns, cycles, had recordings etc that are still used and followed in the modern day. These are found in ancient scriptures, cave paintings etc.
The center distance between the moon and the Earth is about 383,000 kms on an average. The moon is believed to be created out of the Earth in an impact-collision that happened billions of years ago, much after the formation of the solar system; but there are other theories-hypotheses as well. One of the greatest achievements of humans is to land the man on the moon. At Perigee, the distance is about 363,104 kms, and at Apogee – 405,696 kms, according to NASA; so a variation of 42,592 kms about each month.
The moon’s rotation-orbit around the Earth is elliptical, and not in a perfectly circular path. So, at times it is closest to the Earth; and at times the moon is furthest away from the Earth, from the normal-average distance through every month, 29.53 days around Earth relative to the Sun. These aspects are called Perigee and Apogee. Perigee is when the Earth and moon are at the closest distance. Apogee is when the Earth and the moon are farthest away from each other. On the 6th of October 2018, is one of the days when the moon is the closest to the Earth.
Perhaps Perigee is more impactful than Apogee due to closeness to the Earth. It is said to cause a bit higher tides, rising of waters, gushing on the sea coasts-beaches etc. It may prove to be a little more dangerous to fishermen, ships, cruises etc. At Perigee, the moon appears 30% brighter and 14% bigger.
Mondays are dedicated to the moon, Lunar. Monday is called Somvaar in Hindi, Lunes in Spanish, dies Lunae in Latin, al’iithnin in Arabic, Getsuyo in Japanese, Xingqui yi in Chinese, Lundi in French etc.
In Astrology, the moon is synonymous with human emotions, psyche, mind, mental balance, moods, peace, satisfaction, thought process, mother etc. In fact, the moon is given the significance-connotation of a planet and is part of the nine planets called NavGraha. Many Gods, lunar deities, spiritual leaders are associated with the moon, e.g., Lord Chandra in Hinduism-Jainism, Guru Nanakji in Sikhism, Lord Buddha in Buddhism, Goddess Artemis and Goddess Selene in Greek, God Ta’lab in Arab, God Sin in Mesopotamian, Goddess Diana in Latin etc.
A Mantras for Lord Chandra is—
Om Shree Shraun Shroh ChandraMeys Namah.
ॐ श्रा श्री श्रो सह चंद्रमएस नमः
Om Som Somaaye Namah
ऊँ सों सोमाय नमः